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What is Brazing?

Brazing is the joining of two base materials with a filler metal. As defined by the American Welding Society (AWS) brazing temperatures must be below the melting point of the two base materials, and the filler metal must have a liquidus above 450°C (840°F) to flow smoothly into joints. Mostly performed in a furnace with a controlled atmosphere of vacuum, hydrogen, nitrogen-hydrogen, etc., brazing is also done using torch or induction heating.

Brazing does the work for you

When a narrow space exists between two parallel surfaces, molten brazing filler metal is drawn into that space--even against gravity! This phenomenon is known as capillary action.

Vacuum Brazing

  • Design flexibility: Assemblies of thin sheet materials, different thermal mass, or dissimilar metals are easily joined.
  • Metallurgical integrity: Only the brazing filler metal is melted, not the base metal.
  • Labor efficiency: Numerous joints and parts can be batched and brazed simultaneously; welding processes only one part at a time.
  • Joint integrity: Capillary action produces leak-tight joints.
  • Process consistency: Quality control is assured by using predetermined, automatically controlled and documented furnace cycles.
  • No clean-up: Parts brazed in controlled atmosphere furnaces emerge clean and oxide free, eliminating post-assembly cleaning. 

Torch Brazing

  • Torch brazing joins relatively small assemblies made from materials that do not oxidize at the brazing temperature or can be protected from oxidation with a flux. The most commonly used filler metals include aluminum-silicon alloys, silver-base alloys, and copper-zinc alloys. Flux is required with these filler metals unless protective atmosphere is used. Self-fluxing copper-phosphorus alloys are also used. Torch brazing is done in air and is the most common brazing process.
  • Normally, torch brazing is done with handheld oxyfuel gas torches using various fuels. However, there are automated machines that use preplaced fluxes as well as preplaced filler metal in paste, wire, or shim form. Torch and machine brazing are generally used to make lap joints in sections from 0.01 to 0.25 in. thick. Joints can be brazed rapidly, but speed decreases as material thickness increases.

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